The effects of parenting on child development and life skills
Article by Vlad
The effects of parenting on child development and life skills – Family – Parenting
The different parenting styles affect child behaviour in many ways. Choosing one of the four parenting styles can have numerous different impacts on your child therefore it is wise to choose carefully and know the pros and cons of each. As mentioned there are four parenting styles which have come to be well known and discussed in various research. Those styles are as follows: authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting and uninvolved parenting. First let us discuss the characteristics of the parents for each one of the styles. Authoritative parents are accepting of their child and display frequent expressions of affection. They set high standard for behaviour, maintain consistent discipline and limit setting, employ reason rather than force and they listen to the child’s point of view. Authoritarian parents show little warmth and sometime may be actively rejecting their child. They set high standard for behaviour as well, expect strict obedience, use harsh and punitive discipline and they do not listen to their child’s point of view. Permissive parents are highly accepting of their child and display frequent expressions of affection. They are undemanding with regard to their child’s behaviour, have lax rules and are inconsistent about discipline, employ reason rather than force, and they encourage their child to express his or her point of view. Uninvolved parents are simply unemotionally detached, withdrawn and undemanding with regard to the child’s behaviour. As you can see a lot of the parent characteristics are seen across all the parenting styles for example the authoritative parents combine characteristics found in the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Now that we have spoken about the parents let’s see how the children react to each of these parenting styles to get a sense of how their behaviour is affected. First off the most positive of the styles has been known to be that of the authoritative parenting style. It is the one deemed with the most positive child outcomes.
Children of authoritative parents tend to be curious, self confident, and well behaved. They perform well in school, are popular with their peers, and they are responsive to parental messages. Their self-esteem is high, and their probability of engaging in deviant activities such as drug use in adolescence is low. Other parenting styles however are linked to more negative outcomes.
Children of authoritarian parents tend to be anxious, easily upset, and low in self-confidence. They often react with anger and aggression when frustrated which usually affects their relationship with their peers in a negative way. Also, they are at risk for conduct problems, and their performance in school is typically not equal to that of children from authoritarian parenting styles.
Children of permissive parents tend to be impulsive, immature and disobedient. They are overly dependent on adults, and do not persist well in the face of difficulty. They often do not often do well in school and have a heightened probability of various forms of rebellious and antisocial behaviour. Permissive parenting is often dominant in couples dealing with their own problems.
Lastly, children of uninvolved parents tend to have insecure attachments in infancy and show low social and academic competence as they develop. They also have a heightened risk for substance abuse and delinquency in adolescence. Now that you know all the possible outcomes your parenting will have on your children, you may choose wisely which of these parenting styles to pursue.